Battery Features

What are the ‘Battery Features’?

Battery features means charge thresholds and the possibility to discharge or recalibrate the battery while AC is connected. Battery features do not comprise additional power saving.

Important

  • Battery charge thresholds, discharge and recalibration are currently only supported for IBM/Lenovo ThinkPads

  • Any other Lenovo laptop models including IdeaPads and all other laptop brands are not supported

  • TLP 1.3.1 does not support the kernel’s natacpi implementations for Asus and Huawei laptops because of differing sysfiles

See also

How do I get ‘Battery Features’ support for my non-ThinkPad laptop?

Battery Features require a kernel driver matching your laptop brand or series. Kernel driver development is not part of the project, TLP just probes existing drivers and provides a unified interface to them.

Thus your todos are:

  • Reengineer your vendor’s battery tool for the preloaded OS and document the ACPI calls used for the charge thresholds

  • Implement the ACPI calls in a Linux kernel driver using the natacpi framework, exposing sysfiles charge_start_threshold and charge_stop_threshold

  • Result: TLP supports your laptop out of the box

How do battery charge thresholds work?

See Battery Charge Thresholds.

What is the purpose of battery charge thresholds?

See Battery Charge Thresholds.

How to choose good battery charge thresholds?

Note

Newer ThinkPad models may not need charge thresholds due to dualmode battery firmware – a Lenovo staff member states at Lenovo Forums [1]: “The battery firmware itself will recognize the scenario where the battery is ALWAYS fully charged 100% (over a period of many weeks) and adjust the full charge capacity downwards in a way to maintain maximum battery health. This is something that happens automatically in the battery firmware. There is nothing that a user needs to do manually, to maximize battery health on these batteries. For this reason, we don’t provide any utility to manually manage battery charge thresholds […]”

Factory settings for ThinkPad battery thresholds are as follows: when plugged in the battery starts charging at 96%, and stops at 100%. These settings are optimized for maximum runtime, but having a battery hold a lot of power will decrease its capacity over the years. To alleviate this problem, the start/stop charge thresholds can be adjusted – at the cost of a more or less reduced battery runtime.

It all depends on how you use your laptop, or more precisely, on the minimal runtime you’re ready to accept when you’re on the road. In the end, it all comes down to a runtime vs. lifespan trade-off.

If the laptop is plugged most of the time and rarely unplugged, maximizing battery lifetime at the cost of a greatly reduced runtime may be acceptable, with values like starting charge at 40% and stopping at 50%.

On the contrary, if you use it unplugged most of the time, starting charge at 85% and stopping at 90% would allow for a much longer runtime and still give a lifespan benefit over the factory settings.

Source: Lenovo Forums [2]

Default TLP settings (only if you uncomment the relevant lines) are slightly more protective regarding lifespan, with 75/80% charge thresholds.

Note

Please always consider that the start threshold is the critical constraint for runtime, because it defines the lowest charge level that can occur while plugged. Remember that TLP provides a command (tlp fullcharge) to fully charge the battery, when you need to temporarily maximize runtime (for example in case of a trip).

How can I check if my configured charge thresholds are working?

The output of tlp-stat -b shows two characteristics for the positive case:

  1. An active feature driver for the charge thresholds

  2. The actual charge thresholds – read back from the embedded controller

So if there is a line containing active (thresholds) and the displayed thresholds match the ones you configured, then the charging logic has properly received them.

The following are three examples for different ThinkPad generations and kernel versions:

+++ Battery Features
natacpi    = active (thresholds)
...
/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_start_threshold         =     75 [%]
/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_stop_threshold          =     80 [%]
+++ Battery Features
tpacpi-bat = active (thresholds, recalibrate)
...
tpacpi-bat.BAT0.startThreshold                              =     75 [%]
tpacpi-bat.BAT0.stopThreshold                               =     80 [%]
+++ Battery Features
tp-smapi   = active (thresholds, recalibrate)
...
/sys/devices/platform/smapi/BAT0/start_charge_thresh        =     75 [%]
/sys/devices/platform/smapi/BAT0/stop_charge_thresh         =     80 [%]

If the output does not contain the required characteristics, check the following sections for solutions.

However, if despite a correctly set up system the charging thresholds do not work as you expect them to, then you should first compare your idea of the charging process with the description in Battery Charge Thresholds and subsequently check the sections further down for possible explanations.

Note

On some models the displayed threshold values do not correspond to the configured ones, although they work as they should – refer to ThinkPad Edge, E / L / S series, SL410/510, Yoga series.

Which kernel module do I need for my ThinkPad?

Note

Prerequisite: make sure to install the most recent version of TLP for accurate recommendations.

Check the bottom of the output of tlp-stat -b, section ‘Recommendations’, for the following lines

Install tp-smapi kernel modules for ThinkPad battery thresholds and recalibration
Install acpi_call kernel module for ThinkPad battery thresholds and recalibration
Install acpi_call kernel module for ThinkPad battery recalibration

and install the required external kernel module package as explained in Installation for your distribution.

Almost all ThinkPad models need only one of the above kernel modules. You may check the output of tlp-stat -b for lines like:

tpacpi-bat = inactive (ThinkPad not supported)
tp-smapi = inactive (ThinkPad not supported)

and remove the unnecessary module package (tpacpi-bat means acpi_call). However it doesn’t really hurt to keep both.

natacpi – Ultimate solution at the horizon

Note

The following requires at least version 1.2.2.

Starting with kernel 4.17 tpacpi-bat gets superseded by a new, native kernel API called natacpi (contained in the ubiquitious kernel module thinkpad_acpi). tlp-stat -b indicates this as follows:

+++ Battery Features
natacpi = active (data, thresholds)
tpacpi-bat = active (recalibrate)
tp-smapi = inactive (ThinkPad not supported)

As of kernel 5.9 the patches for discharge/recalibrate haven’t been merged. A full implementation would look like this:

+++ Battery Features
natacpi = active (data, thresholds, recalibrate)
tpacpi-bat = inactive (superseded by natacpi)
tp-smapi = inactive (ThinkPad not supported)

With full natacpi support, you won’t need external kernel module packages anymore.

Why is my battery charged up to 100% – ignoring the charge thresholds?

Possible causes are:

Laptop is not a ThinkPad

Battery charge thresholds and recalibration work with ThinkPads only (see above).

External kernel module is not installed

Symptom: tlp-stat -b shows

tpacpi-bat = inactive (kernel module 'acpi_call' not installed)

or

tp-smapi = inactive (kernel module 'tp_smapi' not installed)

Solution: read Which kernel module do I need for my ThinkPad? and install the necessary packages. If tlp-stat -b still claims ‘not installed’ after installing the appropriate package, reinstall the package via shell command and check the output for errors. See below for possible causes.

Fedora release upgrade

It may be necessary to rebuild the kernel modules (as root):

akmods --force

Installation of package acpi-call-dkms failed

Important

acpi_call and derived packages are not provided by the TLP project. Please don’t file bug reports for them in the TLP issue tracker.

Symptoms: tlp-stat -b shows

tpacpi-bat = inactive (kernel module 'acpi_call' not installed)

Package install shows

Setting up acpi-call-dkms ...
Error! Bad return status for module build on kernel: ...

Solution: upgrade the package:

Debian and Ubuntu derivatives

  • Kernel ≥ 4.12 needs at least package version 1.1.0-4 (Debian Buster or Ubuntu 18.04)

  • Kernel ≥ 5.6 needs at least package version 1.1.0-6 (Debian Buster Backports, Debian unstable or Ubuntu 20.10)

Kernel module acpi-call is not loaded

Symptom: tlp-stat -b shows

tpacpi-bat = inactive (kernel module 'acpi_call' load error)

Solution: try to load manually with

sudo modprobe -v acpi_call

and use adequate forums to resolve your issue with acpi-call.

Note

You may need to disable Secure Boot when acpi-call refuses to load. Check your distribution’s Installation instructions.

Installation of package tp-smapi-dkms failed

Important

tp-smapi and derived packages are not provided by the TLP project. Please don’t file bug reports for them in the TLP issue tracker.

Symptoms (Ubuntu): tlp-stat -b shows

tp-smapi = inactive (kernel module 'tp_smapi' not installed)

Package install shows

Setting up tp-smapi-dkms ...
Error! Your kernel headers for kernel X.Y.0-NN-generic cannot be found.
Please install the linux-headers-X.Y.0-NN-generic package

Solution: install package linux-generic-headers.

Symptoms: tlp-stat -b shows

tp-smapi = inactive (kernel module 'tp_smapi' not installed)

Package install shows

Setting up tp-smapi-dkms ...
Error! Bad return status for module build on kernel: ...

Solution: upgrade the package:

Ubuntu 16.04

  • Either enable the TLP PPA (see Ubuntu) and update your packages (recommended)

  • or download version 0.43-1 from Focal and install it manually

Kernel module tp-smapi is not loaded

Symptom: tlp-stat -b shows

tp-smapi = inactive (kernel module 'tp_smapi' load error)

Solution: try to load manually with

sudo modprobe -v tp_smapi

and check tp-smapi Troubleshooting for a solution matching the error message or use adequate forums to resolve your issue with tp-smapi.

Note

ThinkPad T420(s)/T520/W520/X220

tp-smapi doesn’t support start threshold and recalibration on Sandy Bridge generation ThinkPads. Symptoms are:

tlp-stat -b shows

/sys/devices/platform/smapi/BAT0/start_charge_thresh = (not available)

tlp setcharge/tlp fullcharge show the message

start => Warning: cannot set threshold.

tlp discharge/recalibrate show the message

Error: discharge function not available for this laptop.

Solutions:

ThinkPad T430(s)/T530/W530/X230 (and all later models)

Solutions:

ThinkPad E495

Symptom: thresholds have been written to the Embedded Controller (EC), tlp-stat -b reads them back as configured (see Issue #454):

/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_start_threshold = 45 [%]
/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_stop_threshold = 60 [%]

Yet they do not work.

Cause: bug in Lenovo’s EC firmware.

Workaround:

  • Update BIOS (contains EC firmware) to 1.16 or higher

  • Remove thresholds once from EC with tlp fullcharge

  • Leave the thresholds enabled in the config file

  • Reboot, which will restore the configured thresholds

ThinkPad L420/520, L512, SL300/400/500, X121e

These models are neither supported by tp-smapi nor by tpacpi-bat or natacpi. Please refrain from opening issues.

Battery has been removed

By removing (and re-inserting) the battery the charge thresholds are reset to factory settings (96 / 100%) for some models. To restore TLP’s settings use

sudo tlp setcharge

(see Battery Features) or

  • Restart system

  • Shutdown and power off system

Charge thresholds shown by tlp-stat -b do not correspond to the configured ones

Possible causes are:

Configuration was not activated

After changes to the configuration it is necessary to reboot. Alternatively use

sudo tlp start

or

sudo tlp setcharge

to activate the thresholds.

ThinkPad Edge, E / L / S series, SL410/510, Yoga series

On these models the threshold values shown by tlp-stat -b do not correspond to the written values. For example the settings

START_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=75
STOP_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=80

may show up as

/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_start_threshold         =     75 [%]
/sys/class/power_supply/BAT0/charge_stop_threshold          =     74 [%]

The described behavior is caused by the EC firmware, not by TLP. Nonetheless the charge thresholds work as configured.

Start threshold does not apply after change

Affected hardware: ThinkPads X240, Yoga 12 (based on user feedback)

Workaround: activating a new start threshold may require to discharge the battery below the old start threshold after writing the new threshold, i.e. via tlp setcharge or reboot (see Issue #173).

tlp fullcharge BAT1 stops at ~80%

Affected hardware: ThinkPad T440s (based on user feedback)

Symptom: despite the stop threshold is set to 100% either by configuration or by tlp fullcharge/setcharge, charging of BAT1 stops at around 80%.

Cause: this is hard-coded into Lenovo’s EC firmware. After BAT1 reaches 80% charging commences with BAT0 until 100%, afterwards BAT1 continues until 100%. If a stop threshold is set for BAT0, the last step may never happen.

No solution: Lenovo’s EC firmware offers no possibilty to change the behaviour.

Erratic battery behavior on ThinkPad T420(s)/T520/W520/X220 (and all later models)

Symptom: some users report severely reduced battery capacity or sudden drops of the charge level from around 30% to zero when employing charge thresholds.

Probable cause: conflict with dualmode battery firmware (refer to How to choose good battery charge thresholds?).

Solution: remove battery thresholds completely or use only the start threshold by setting the stop threshold to 100%:

START_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=75
STOP_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=100

Then recalibrate the battery once.

Note

This is a software only issue, no harm is done to the battery.

Do charge thresholds work even when TLP is not running or the laptop is powered off?

Yes. The charging process is not controlled by software running on the laptop’s operating system but by the embedded controller (EC). TLP only passes the threshold values to the EC firmware using the appropriate feature driver. Once stored in the EC, the thresholds also take effect when the laptop is switched off. See below for removal.

See also

Refer to Battery Charge Thresholds for details of the charging process.

What exactly does the start charge threshold START_CHARGE_THRESH_BATx do?

The start charge threshold ensures that the battery is not recharged immediately after every short discharge process. The charging process starts only when the previous discharge was below the value of START_CHARGE_THRESH_BATx.

See also

Refer to Battery Charge Thresholds for details of the charging process.

How to designate the battery to discharge when battery powered?

ThinkPad battery balancing i.e. selecting the active battery for models with more than one battery is not possible because the Lenovo EC firmware offers no way to do this, neither manual nor automatic.

Why does the battery not start to discharge when the stop threshold is reached during charging?

Author’s remark: sometimes users trap into this misunderstanding without me having understood how it happens. This is the attempt to lead them out again.

The task of the stop threshold is to reduce battery wear by limiting the charge level below 100%. So charging stops at the threshold and the battery will not be discharged as long as the charger remains connected.

This is the behaviour designated by the manufacturer. It cannot (and should not) be changed, because repeated discharge of the battery during operation on AC power would lead to absurdly high wear (i.e. charging cycles) without any benefit being derived from it.

See also

Refer to Battery Charge Thresholds for details of the charging process.

How do I disable the charge thresholds?

Remove the charge thresholds from the configuration by inserting a leading #

#START_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=75
#STOP_CHARGE_THRESH_BAT0=80

and use

sudo tlp fullcharge

to immediately activate the factory settings 96/100%.

Disabling the charge thresholds does not work

Affected hardware: ThinkPads E580, T480s, X1 Carbon 6th (based on user feedback)

Symptom: after resetting the thresholds as described above, tlp-stat -b shows the stop threshold unchanged.

Cause: after applying a stop threshold value < 100, Lenovo’s EC firmware does not accept values higher than the previously set value.

Solution: update EC firmware (contained in BIOS update)

  • T480s: ECP 1.13 (BIOS 1.31) or higher

  • X1 Carbon 6th: ECP 1.12 (BIOS 1.37) or higher

Workaround (without BIOS update):

  • Disable the threshold configuration as decribed above

  • Power off the laptop via shutdown

  • Unplug AC power

  • Power on the laptop

  • At the Lenovo logo: press Enter, F1 to enter the BIOS setup

  • Go to: Config → Power → Disable Built-in Battery, Enter, Y laptop will power off

  • Connect AC

  • Power on laptop

  • Check with tlp-stat -b – thresholds should be at factory settings 96/100% now

  • When unsuccessful, repeat the whole procedure

My battery does not charge anymore after recalibration showing X% remaining capacity constantly

Most probable cause: battery is defect – and was it even before the recalibration attempt.

tlp recalibrate terminates with ‘Error: battery was not discharged completely. Check your hardware.’

Cause: this is a hardware issue either with your battery (likely), charger or laptop.

Impact: recalibration doesn’t work at all without a full discharge to tell the battery controller (the one in the battery) where the actual 0% is.

Solution: make sure AC power is connected during the whole process, try to replace your battery next.

Why does the panel applet show the battery state ‘charging’ despite charge thresholds are effective?

Existing panel applets query upowerd or the standard kernel interface which do not reflect the charging condition correctly as soon as charge thresholds intervene.

In this situation tlp-stat -b shows ‘Unknown (threshold effective)’ for /sys/class/power_supply/BATx/status. For ThinkPad models supporting tp-smapi, the correct state ‘Idle’ is shown for /sys/devices/platform/smapi/BATx/state.

Why does tlp-stat -b display ‘cycle_count = (not supported)’?

Cycle count is not available for all laptops. Positive exceptions are older ThinkPads supporting tp-smapi and some newer hardware.